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The Pesach Seder

 

Rabbi Mordechai Frankel, Director, Institute of Halacha

 

The following contains halachic guidance concerning some of the common issues that arise when conducting a Pesach Seder.  In particular, it discusses preparation for the Seder, the four cups of wine, and the obligation to eat matza, marror, korech and afikoman.  It is by no means comprehensive.  For a more comprehensive guide, see HaSeder HaAruch by Rabbi Moshe Yaakov Weingarten (three volumes, 1431 pages).

 

PREPARATIONS FOR THE SEDER

A person should complete all of the necessary preparations for the Seder on Erev Pesach to enable him to start the Seder without delay. 1  (If Erev Pesach falls on Shabbos, he cannot prepare for the Seder on Erev Pesach since he may not prepare for Yom Tov on Shabbos, from one day of Yom Tov for the next day.)

 

The following preparations should be made prior to Yom Tov:

1. If horseradish is being used for marror, it should be grated.2 If one forgot to do this, then he may grate it on Yom Tov if he employs a shinui and grates in an unusual manner, such as grating it onto the table rather than onto a plate.3

 

2. If lettuce leaves are being used for marror, they should be checked to ensure that they are not harboring insects.4 To check romaine lettuce leaves, one should separate the leaves, soak them in water, and then make a thorough leaf by leaf inspection.  Any insects which are found must be removed.  Alternatively, he may use romaine stalks for marror instead of the leaves.5 To do this, he should remove the leaves from the stalks and rinse them under a strong stream of water, rubbing the stalks during the rinsing.  No further checking is required.

 

3. Prepare the karpas vegetable and the salt water into which it will be dipped.6 Any vegetable may be used for karpas, except those which may be used for marror.7   However, the custom is to use celery,8 radishes,9 or cooked potatoes.10

 

4. Prepare the charoses.11  The ingredients for charoses typically include grated apples, almonds and other nuts,12 cinnamon, ginger, and red wine.13   The charoses should have the texture of apple sauce.14

 

5. The bone which will be used for the zroa on the Seder plate should be roasted over a fire, as was done to the Korban Pesach.15   Some people first boil the zroa and then singe it over a flame.16   It is preferable to use the forearm of an animal or bird, which is the zroa bone.17  The equivalent limb of a chicken is the part of the wing that is directly attached to the body.18  The zroa must have some meat on the bone.19  It may not be eaten on the Seder night, because we do not eat roasted meat at the Seder.20  The meat of the zroa (which has been cooked before Yom Tov) should ideally be eaten on the second day of Yom Tov, as it is not proper to dispose of the zroa in an unfitting manner.21

 

6. Boil and then roast the egg to be used on the Seder plate.22  A person whose custom is to eat eggs at the Seder meal should also prepare these eggs.23

 

7. Open the wine bottles to be used at the Seder.  In particular, wine bottles that have a screw cap should be opened before Yom Tov.24  One should also open the boxes of matza that will be needed for the first days of Yom Tov.25

 

8. Children should rest so that they will be awake during the Seder.26   If possible, adults should also rest.27

 

9. Set the Seder table with elegant dishes and arrange the chairs which will be used for leaning.28   Even though throughout the year one should minimize luxury as a zecher l’churban, on Seder night it is appropriate to use the finest dishes available.29 Some people have a custom that the husband arranges the Keara.30   There were gedolim who insisted on personally setting the table for the Seder.31

 

10. Prepare the Keara.  There are differing customs as to the layout of the various components of the Keara.  One prevalent custom is that of the Arizal.32  According to this minhag, beginning at the top of the Keara is the zroa, which is placed on the upper right side of the Keara, and the beitza which is placed on the upper left side.  The marror is placed in the middle of the Keara, with the charoses underneath and to the right, and the karpas underneath and to the left.  The chazeres is placed closest to the leader of the Seder, at the bottom of the Keara.  Three matzos are placed either outside or underneath the Keara,33 next to the zroa and beitza.34

 

Another custom is that of the Rema.35 According to this minhag, the karpas and salt water are placed nearest to the leader of the Seder with the Matza above them, the marror and charoses above the Matza, and the beitza and Zroa above them furthest from the leader of the Seder. 

 

Below is an illustration of the Keara according to both the Rema and the Arizal:

 


There are other customs regarding the arrangement of the items on the Keara.  The Gra36 and Maharal37 each have differing customs.  A person should follow his own particular minhag.

Some have the custom to place a covering between each of the three matzos, while others do not.38 The matzos should be covered before Kiddush.39  Often, families that join together for the Seder have the custom of providing a separate Keara for the head of each individual household.40

 

11. Make an eruv tavshilin, if necessary.  One should take a baked item such as matza and a cooked item41 such as fish, meat or an egg.42 He should hold the items43 and recite the text found in the siddur.  The eruv tavshilin should not be eaten until all of the preparations for Shabbos are completed.44  It is customary to eat the eruv tavshilin at shalosh seudos.45

 

The Four Cups

One is required to drink four cups of wine at the Seder;46 women have the same obligation as men.47  If a person drinks four cups of wine in a row, he is not yotzei this mitzva.48>  Rather, he must recite the Haggadah and drink each of the arba kosos at the appropriate point.49  For this reason, he may not drink the fourth cup immediately after the third cup.50  A woman should make sure that she either recites the Haggadah herself or hears the leader of the Seder recite the Haggadah, so that she will be able to drink the arba kosos at the appropriate times.51

 

The cup should hold the measurement of a reviis of wine.52  According to Rav Chaim Noeh, a reviis is calculated at 86 cubic centimeters of wine (כוס גימטריא),53 which is equivalent to slightly less than 3 fl. oz.  According to the Chazon Ish, it equals 150 cubic centimeters of wine

(הגון כוס גימטריא) which is equivalent to slightly more than 5 fl. oz.54  Based on the ruling of the Mishna Berura, Rav Heinemann shli”ta55 states that it is necessary to use a cup which holds 3.8 fluid ounces.56

 

Ideally, a person should drink a reviis of wine.57  Some opinions state that if the cup holds more than a reviis he should drink the entire cup;58 others dispute this.59  If it is difficult to drink an entire reviis of wine, one should drink slightly more than half the cup.60  If a person has difficulty drinking four cups of wine, he should make sure that he has a cup that holds exactly a reviis so that he will need to drink only slightly more than half a reviis.61  For the fourth cup, he should either drink enough wine to be able to recite a brocha acharona himself or have someone be motzei him.62

 

It is preferable to drink the majority of the reviis at one time.63  If a person cannot do so, he should at least drink the majority of the reviis within kedei shtias reviis,64 which is approximately half a minute.65

 

An alcoholic wine should be used for the arba kosos.66 The wine can be diluted with grape juice.67

 

Rav Heinemann shli”ta is of the opinion that the resulting mixture should contain at least 4% alcohol.68 Therefore, wine which has 12% alcohol content can be diluted into ⅓ wine and ⅔ grape juice.  Alternatively, the wine can be diluted with water.  Wine which has 12% alcohol content can therefore be diluted into ⅓ wine and ⅔ water; alternatively, it can be diluted into ⅓ wine, ⅓ grape juice, and ⅓ water.69  If a person cannot drink wine, then he can use grape juice for the four cups.70  Some people may have difficulty tolerating both wine and grape juice.  A person who will become incapacitated is not obliged to drink the arba kosos.71

 

Red wine should be used for the Seder.72  Throughout the year, it is preferable not to use wine which has been cooked for Kiddush; the same is true for the Seder.73  This is because uncooked wine tastes better than cooked wine.74  It is debatable as to whether pasteurized wine has the same status as cooked wine in this regard.75

 

A child who has reached the age of chinuch, about five or six years old,76 should also be given arba kosos to drink;77 however, it is not essential to do so.78  A child does not need to drink a full reviis of wine or grape juice and should rather drink meloh lugmav, the amount of wine he can hold in his cheeks.79  It is customary to give arba kosos even to younger children, although they can be given a minimal amount of grape juice.80   When drinking the first cup, a person should have in mind that he is fulfilling the obligations of both Kiddush and the first of the arba kosos.81

 

A man should drink the arba kosos while leaning to his left side.82  If he did not lean while drinking the first, third or fourth kos, he should not drink that kos a second time.83  If he did not lean while drinking the second kos, he should drink another kos during the meal while leaning to his left side.84

 

MATZA

Both men and women are commanded by the Torah to eat matza at the Seder.85  A child who has reached the age of chinuch should also be given matza to eat at the Seder.86

 

The matzos being used for the mitzva should be Shemura matzos. This is matza that has been watched since the harvesting of the wheat to ensure that nothing has occurred which might cause it to become chometz.87  Many people have the custom to use only hand-baked matzos for this mitzva; others use machine matzos.88

 

A person must eat one kezayis of matza at the Seder.89 The Steipler Gaon90 and Rav Dovid Feinstein91 write that ideally one should eat ⅔ of a machine matza or the equivalent volume of hand-baked matza, which would be approximately half of a Tzelem Pupa hand matza.92  However, upon experimentation, Rav Heinemann shli”ta found that half of a machine matza or ⅓ of a Tzelem Pupa hand matza contains the volume of matza necessary for a kezayis.93

 

A person who has difficulty chewing may crush the kezayis of matza before eating it.94  If necessary, he may also soak the matza in water to facilitate eating the kezayis.95  A person who is unable to eat or drink the prescribed amount of matza, marror or wine should consult his rav.  Please refer to the article, “Pesach Guide For Those With Diabetes”, for more information.

 

The kezayis of matza should be eaten within the time span of kedei achilas peras.96 The kezayis should preferably be eaten within two minutes.97 If this cannot be done, it should at least be eaten within three98 or four minutes.99 A man should eat the matza while leaning on his left side.100  If he did not do so, he should eat another kezayis without another brocha while leaning to his left side.101

 

After everyone at the Seder has finished washing netilas yadayim and returned to the table, the leader of the Seder should take the three matzos in front of him and recite the brocha of Hamotzi. The top and bottom matzos, which are both whole, will serve as the lechem mishna.102 If feasible, he should then set down the bottom matza and recite the brocha of Al Achilas Matza while holding the top and broken middle matzos.103  He should then give each person at the Seder a kezayis, including within the kezayis some of the top and middle matzos over which the brocha has been made.104

 

A person should preferably chew the matza without swallowing, until he has a kezayis of matza in his mouth, and then swallow the kezayis at one time.105  In regards to this, one may rely upon the more lenient measurements of a kezayis, which calculate it as being less than ¼ of a machine matza.106 

 

People who find it impractical to swallow an entire kezayis at one time should instead eat the kezayis in the normal manner, and include some of the top and broken middle matzos over which the brocha has been made.107

 

The Shulchan Aruch brings an opinion that one should eat a kezayis from the top matza followed by a second kezayis from the broken middle matza.108  However, a person who fulfills the requirement of eating a kezayis by eating the size of half of a machine matza is actually eating two kezaysim when calculated according to the more lenient measurements of a kezayis.109 It is, therefore, sufficient to eat the size of half of a machine matza in order to comply with the opinion that suggests eating two kezaysim.110

 

Before eating, a person should have in mind that he is about to perform the mitzva of eating matza.111  When reciting or hearing the brocha of Al Achilas Matza, he should also have in mind the eating of the afikoman.112

MARROR

Nowadays, in the absence of the Korban Pesach, it is no longer a Torah requirement to eat marror at the Seder; however, there is a rabbinic obligation to do so.113  This obligation applies equally to men and women.114  Children who have reached the age of chinuch should also be given marror to eat, just like an adult.115

 

A person may use romaine lettuce for the marror,116 although it must be checked before Pesach to ensure that it does not harbor insects.117  He may use either the leaves or the lettuce stalks for marror.118  The lettuce does not need to be bitter,119 although there is an opinion that the lettuce must have some element of bitter taste.120>  Some people have the custom not to use lettuce for marror.121

 

Raw horseradish may also be used for marror.122  It is customary that people who use lettuce for marror put some horseradish on the lettuce, although it is not necessary to do so.123  There is no need to use a lot of horseradish for this.124

 

The marror should be dipped into charoses, and the excess charoses shaken off.125  A person must eat a kezayis of marror.126  The amount of lettuce which will displace 25 cm³ of water would constitute a kezayis, according to Rav Chaim Noeh.127  This is equivalent to slightly less than 1 fl. oz.  According to the Chazon Ish128 and Rav Dovid Feinstein,129 one should take 1.1 fl. oz. of lettuce for marror.  Rav Heinemann shli”ta is of the opinion that a person should take 1 fl. oz. of lettuce.130  One large lettuce leaf or two large stalks displaces approximately 1 fl. oz. of water.131

 

The kezayis of marror should be eaten within the time span of kedei achilas peras.132  The kezayis should preferably be eaten within two minutes.133 If this cannot be done, it should at least be eaten within three134 or four minutes.135  One does not lean when eating the marror.9

 

KORECH

The leader of the Seder should take the remaining bottom matza and use it to give each person at the Seder a portion of korech. 137 It is customary to prepare korech with two pieces of matza sandwiching some marror.138 The marror should be dipped into charoses, and the excess charoses shaken off.139

 

Some have the custom not to dip the marror into charoses for korech.140  A person should eat one kezayis of matza and one kezayis of marror for korech,141 and measure the kezayis of marror as described above.142  For the kezayis of matza, it is sufficient to take half of the volume of matza described above.143  Therefore, following the larger measurement described above, one should eat ⅓ of a machine matza or ¼ of a Tzelem Pupa hand matza.  Following the measurements of Rav Heinemann shli”ta, it is sufficient to take ¼ of a machine matza or 1/6 of a Tzelem Pupa hand matza.144

 

Before eating korech, one should recite the paragraph ‘וכו כהלל למקדש זכר.145  Some suggest saying this paragraph after one has started to eat korech.146  A man should consume korech while leaning to his left side;147 if he did not do so, he does not need to eat another portion.148  From the time a person recites the brocha over the matza until he eats the korech portion, it is preferable not to discuss matters unrelated to the eating of the matza, marror, korech and the Seder meal.149

 

AFIKOMAN

The leader of the Seder should give each person at the Seder a kezayis of matza,150 including within the kezayis some of the remaining half of the middle matza.151  Ideally, he should take the same volume of matza as was used for the initial eating of matza at the Seder.152

 

A man should eat the afikoman while leaning to his left side.153  If he did not lean and has not started Birchas Hamazon, he should eat the afikoman a second time, providing that it is not too difficult for him to do so.154  If he has started Birchas Hamazon, he should not wash and eat the afikoman again.155

 

Chazal debate whether the afikoman may be eaten all night long or by chatzos, halachic midnight.  In order to fulfill both opinions, one must be careful to eat the afikoman before 156  After eating the afikoman, one may not consume other food.157

 

Rav Moshe Feinstein zt”l states that according to both opinions of chazal, a person may not eat other food for the duration of the night.158 He also may not drink wine or fruit juice, with the exception of the remaining two cups of the arba kosos;159 he may drink water160 or tea.161

 

It has been argued that, according to the opinion that the afikoman must be eaten by chatzos, the prohibition against consuming additional food also ends at chatzos.162  If so, when chatzos is approaching and a person has not yet finished his meal, he may eat a kezayis of matza and verbally state the following:  If the correct opinion is that one may eat the afikoman until chatzos, then this matza should be regarded as the afikoman; however, if one has all night to eat the afikoman, then it should not be regarded as such.  He may eat the matza, wait until chatzos, and then continue his meal.  After the meal, he should eat another kezayis of matza and state the following:  If the correct opinion is that one has all night to eat the afikoman, then this matza should be regarded as the afikoman; but, if the afikoman must be eaten before chatzos, then it should not be regarded as such.163  However, Rav Moshe Feinstein zt”l rejects this position and states that the afikoman must simply be eaten before chatzos.164

 

When Moshiach comes, and the Beis Hamikdash is rebuilt, we will once again offer the Korban Pesach in accordance with the Torah obligation to eat the Korban Pesach with matza and marror.165  Bimehera Yiboneh Hamikdash.



The following abbreviations have been used:  M.B. – Mishna Berura, S.A. – Shulchan Aruch, S.H. – Shaar HaTziyun,

B.H. – Biur Halacha.  All citations to Shulchan Aruch refer to section Orach Chayim.

1. S.A. 472:1.

2. See M.B. 473:36; Rema 495:1; M.B. 495:10; S.H. 495:12; B.H. ‘Miyhu’. M.B. 473:36 states that the Gra would not grate the marror until the    start of the Seder, due to concern that it may lose its sharpness.

3 See Rema 504:1; M.B. 504:11; M.B. 504:19; S.H. 504:33. See also Orchos Rabbeinu vol. 2 page 73. If Pesach occurs on Shabbos, one must grate the marror on Erev Pesach; if he did not do so, he should prepare it in the manner prescribed by M.B. 321:45.

4. M.B. 473:42.

5. S.A. 473:5.

6. See Chayei Odom, kelal 130 dinei haSeder biketzara 1. See M.B. 473:21 concerning the preparation of salt water on Shabbos.

7. M.B. 473:20.

8. See Minhagei Maharil, Machon Yerushalayim edition, page 96; Teshuvos Chasam Sofer, Orach Chaim 132 quoting Rav Nosson Adler; Tosafos Yom Tov Shabbos 9:5; Magen Avrohom 473:4; Chok Yaakov 473:12; Chayei Odom klal 130 kitzur dinei haSeder 5.

9. Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 118:2; Aruch HaShulchan 473:10.

10. Aruch HaShulchan 473:10.

11. M.B. 473:47. See M.B. 473:47; M.B. 321:67; M.B. 321:45 concerning the preparation of charoses on Shabbos.

12. See Rema 473:5; M.B. 473:49.

13. Rema 473:5; M.B. 473:48.

14. Heard from Rav Heinemann shli”ta.

15. S.A. 473:4; M.B. 473:28-29. See M.B. 473:32 concerning roasting the Zroa on Yom Tov.

16. See Magen Avrohom 473:8 quoting Maharil; Piskei Teshuvos 473:12 and footnote 58.

17. S.A. 473:4; M.B. 473:27.

18. Heard from Rav Heinemann shli”ta. Pri Megadim siman 473 aishel avrohom 7 writes that there are those who use the neck of a bird for the zroa, although he does not know why.

19. M.B. 473:27.

20. M.B. 473:32.

21. See M.B. 473:32.

22. S.A. 473:4; M.B. 473:32. M.B. writes that if one does not intend to eat the egg on that day, then the egg cannot be roasted on Yom Tov and must be prepared before Yom Tov.

23. Rema 476:2 that it is customary to eat a hard boiled egg at the start of the Seder meal.

24. M.B. 509:28. See also Igros Moshe, Orach Chaim 1:122 anaf 10; Minchas Shlomo 1:91 section 12.

25. See Shemiras Shabbos Kehilchasa 9:10-12.

26. See S.A. 472:1; Rashi and Rashbam, Pesachim 109a.

27. See Matteh Moshe siman 600.

28. S.A. 472:2.

29. M.B. 472:6.

30. See Chidah, Moreh BeEtzbah siman 206.

31. See Haggadah Shel PesachChasam Sofer’ page 34; Haggadah Shel PesachMiBeis Halevihosofos page 64.

32. Chayei Odom siman 130 kelalei haSeder biketzara 1; Kitzur Shulchan Aruch 118:8; Be’er Haitiv 473:8; M.B. 473:26; Aruch HaShulchan 473:11.

33. The Arizal, quoted by Be’er Haitiv 473:8 states that the Keara should be ‘on’ the matzos. Shulchan Aruch HaGraz 473:26 understands this to mean that the Keara should be on top of the matzos. In order to facilitate this, the Keara is built with slots under the plate into which the matzos can be inserted.

34. Kaf HaChayim 473:58 understands the Arizal to mean that the Keara should be next to the matzos.

35. Rema 473:4.

36. Ma’aseh Rav 187.

37. Haggadah Shel Pesach attributed to the Maharal page 41. However, it has been argued that the work is a forgery and was not written by the Maharal. See the essay of Rav Benedict in the journal Moriah, Sivan 5745. Rav Benedict points out that in the Maharal’s sefer Gevuros Hashem, which extensively discusses the Pesach Seder, there is no mention of the Keara being arranged this way.

38. See Chayei Odom, kelal 130 dinei haSeder biketzara 1; Taamei HaMinhagim #520.

39. See S.A. 473:4; Pri Megaddim Mishbetzos Zahav start of siman 486; S.A. 271:9, M.B. 271:41. See also Matteh Moshe siman 613 quoting the Maharil (Minhagei Maharil page 95).

40. See S.A. 473:4; M.B. 473:17; Piskei Teshuvos 472:11 and footnote 51. See also Shemiras Shabbos Kehilchassa, vol. 2 chap. 55 footnote 15; Halichos Shlomo Pesach chap. 9 footnote 65.

41. S.A. 527:2.

42. M.B. 527:11.

43. See Maharsham 2:36.

44. S.A. 527:16-17.

45. See M.B. 527:48; Piskei Teshuvos 527:12.

46. S.A. 472:8, M.B. 472:24.

47. S.A. 472:14, M.B. 472:44.

48. S.A. 472:8.

49. B.H. 472:8 ‘Shelo’ states that if one drinks the arba kosos with a pause between each cup, but does not recite the Haggadah in between, it is questionable whether he is yotzei.

50. M.B. 472:26.

51. End of B.H. 472:8 ‘Shelo’.

52. S.A. 472:9.

53. Rav Chaim Noeh, Shiurei Torah page 176. 86 cm³ = 2.91 fl. oz.

54. The Steipler Gaon, Shiurin Shel Torah page 65. 150 cm³ = 5.08 fl. oz.

55. Heard from Rav Heinemann shli”ta.

56. See Eruvin 83a, that a reviis is equivalent to the volume of 1½ eggs. Tzlach, Pesachim 109 argues that the eggs referred to by chazal are twice the size of present day eggs. Rav Chaim Noeh, Shiurei Torah Shaar 3 disagrees with the Tzlach. See further M.B. 271:68; B.H. 271:13 ‘Shelo’; Chazon Ish, Orach Chaim 39. M.B. states that for Kiddush one should, lechatchilah, consider a reviis as equivalent to the volume of two present day eggs. Rav Dovid Feinstein shli”ta , sefer Kol Dodi Al Hilchos HaSeder, states that the volume of a large present day egg is 2.2 fl. oz. Rav Bodner, sefer Kezayis Hasholem, page 24 footnote 24, states that it has a volume of 1.87 fl. oz. He further states that he discussed the issue with Rav Dovid Feinstein, who agreed that this was a more accurate measurement. Rav Heinemann shli”ta measured a present day egg as having the volume of 1.9 fl. oz. The volume of two eggs would, therefore, equal 3.8 fl. oz.

57. S.A. 472:9; M.B. 472:30.

58. Chok Yaakov 472:20 quoting Bach; Shulchan Aruch HaGraz 472:19.

59. Chok Yaakov 472:20. See also Orchos Rabbeinu vol. 2 page 60.

60. S.A. 472:9, M.B. 472:30.

61. M.B. 472:33. ‘Rov reviis’ is equivalent to ‘moleh lugmav’, the amount of liquid that a person can hold in his cheeks. B.H. 472:9 ‘veyishteh’ states that a larger person, whose moleh lugmav is greater than rov reviis, would need to drink his personal moleh lugmav.

62. M.B. 472:30.

63. M.B. 472:34 writes that ideally the rov reviis should be drunk at one time. Kol Dodi explains this to means that the rov reviis should be drunk without taking the cup from one’s mouth. See also his rebuttal of Machatzis Hashekel 472:1.

64. M.B. 472:34.

65. Heard from Rav Heinemann shli”ta. See M.B. 472:34; S.H. 472:49 concerning a person who took a longer time than this.

66. Kol Dodi quoting Rav Moshe Feinstein zt”l. He further states that one should push himself to drink the arba kosos in this optimal manner. See also Pri Chadah end of siman 483; Mikrai Kodesh (and footnotes entitled Harerei Kodesh) Pesach vol. 2 page 35.

67. See M.B. 472:37.

68. Heard from Rav Heinemann shli”ta.

69. See M.B. 204:32; M.B. 272:16, that wine can be diluted one part in six and still retain the brocha of Borei Pri Hagofen. See Machaztis Hashekel 204:16 quoting Eliyahu Rabba; Pri Megadim siman 204 aishhel avrohom 16; Kol Dodi. The wine used for the arba kosos should not be diluted to this extent because such a mixture would be only minimally alcoholic. Hilchos Chag Bechag (Chag HaPesach), page 422, states that it is customary to dilute ⅓ wine with ⅔ grape juice. Rav Heinemann shli”ta is of the opinion that the mixture should retain a 4% alcohol content.

70. M.B. 472:37. Teshuvos VeHanhogos 2:243 states that a sick person or old person may, lechatchilah, use grape juice for arba kosos and notes that the Chebiner Rav and the Brisker Rav did so. See also Shulchan Aruch HaGraz 472:17; Hilchos Chag Bechag page 415; Halichos Shlomo Pesach 9:11. Concerning the dilution of grape juice, see Minchas Shlomo 1:4; Vezos Habracha page 116 and Hilchos Shabbas BeShabbas page 386 quoting Rav Elyashiv shli”ta. According to their viewpoint, grape juice which is used for arba kosos should not be mixed with more than a little amount of water.

71. M.B. 472:35. S.A. 472:10 states that even a person who does not generally drink wine because it is harmful or distasteful should force himself to drink the arba kosos.

72. S.A. 472:11. See also Rema 472:1; M.B. 272:10.

73. S.A. 272:8; Rema 272:8; M.B. 272:23; S.A. 472:12; M.B. 472:39.

74. M.B. 272:19.

75. The laws of stam yayin do not apply to cooked wine. Igros Moshe, Yoreh Deah 2:52 and Yoreh Deah 3:31 states that they similarly do not apply to pasteurized wine. However, Minchas Shlomo 1:25 and Rav Elyashiv shli”ta, Kovetz Teshuvos 1:75 disagree. It is not clear whether the Igros Moshe would also treat pasteurized wine as cooked wine with regard to Kiddush. The Meiri, Bava Basra 97 is of the opinion that cooked wine should not be used for Kiddush even if the cooking did not result in any taste change. Presumably, the Meiri would consider pasteurized wine as being in this category.

76. See Chok Yaakov 472:27; Shulchan Aruch HaGraz 472:25.

77. S.A. 472:15.

78. M.B. 472:46.

79. M.B. 472:47.

80. Chok Yaakov 472:27 quoting Maharil (Minhagei Maharil page 94); Kaf Hachaim 472:91. The Chavos Yair, in his sefer Mekor Chaim (Piskei Dinim 472:15), states that it is customary to give wine (or grape juice) even to small babies.

81. M.B. 473:1. M.B. says that some people have the custom to state this verbally. He adds that before reciting the Haggadah, one should verbalize or think that he is going to fulfill the mitzva of sippur yetzias mitzrayim. See also Haggadah Shel Pesach MiBeis Halevi page 93.

82. S.A. 473:2.

83. See S.A. 472:7; Rema 472:7.

84. See S.A. 472:7; Rema 472:7; M.B. 472:21; S.H. 472:31.

85. There is a Torah obligation to eat matza on the first night of Pesach and a rabbinic obligation on the second night, as stated by M.B.475:44. M.B. 472:44 states that women have the same obligation as men.

86. See M.B. 343:2-3; M.B. 269:1; Halichos Shlomo Pesach 9:43.

87. See S.A. 553:4; M.B. 553:21-22; B.H. 553:4 ‘tov’; B.H. 460:1 ‘ein’.

88. Rav Shlomo Kluger paskened that matza made by a hand powered machine is not acceptable for the mitzvah, whereas Rav Yosef Shaul Natansohn (author of Teshuvos Shoel U’meishiv) was lenient, as recorded in Sdei Chemed vol. 7 page 397. Concerning matza made by an electric machine, the Maharsham 4:129, 9:31 was stringent and the Divrei Malkiel 4:20 was lenient. See also Chazon Ish, Orach Chaim 6:10; Hilchos Chag Bechag page 337.

89. Rambam, Hilchos Chometz UMatza 6:1.

90. M.B. 486:1 implies that one should eat the amount of matza which has the same volume as a present day egg. Shiurin Shel Torah, page 65 and footnote on page 66, state that in order to meet this requirement, it is appropriate to ensure that the first kezayis be approximately the size of ⅔ of a machine matza.

91. Rav Dovid Feinstein shli”ta , Kol Dodi, writes that the matza which is eaten for the kezayis should have the volume of 1.5 fl. oz. Sefer Kezayis Hashalem, page 91, states that this is equivalent to the size of ⅔ of a machine Matza. Kol Dodi further states that this measurement is given for the first night of Pesach, but on the second night of Pesach one can be more lenient.

92. Heard from Rav Heinemann shli”ta.

93. Heard from Rav Heinemann shli”ta. Orchos Rabbeinu vol. 2 page 66 writes that the Steipler Gaon noted that the Chazon Ish would take ¼ of a hand baked matza as a kezayis for both Achilas Matza and korech, and eat additional matza during the meal while leaning, so as to fulfill the mitzva without any doubt. See further Orchos Rabbeinu ibid.

94. B.H. 461:4 ‘yotzei’.

95. See M.B. 461:17-18; S.H. 461:32. M.B. 458:4 states that there are scrupulous people who are stringent and do not let matza become wet for the duration of Pesach, due to the concern that there might be some residual flour below the surface of the matza which could become chometz upon contact with water. This is the custom of not eating gebrochts. See further Shaarei Teshuvah 460:1.

96. M.B. 475:9.

97. Shiurin shel Torah, page, 67, based on Chasam Sofer 6:16.

98. See Igros Moshe, Orach Chaim 4:41; Aruch HaShulchan 202:8; Orchos Rabbeinu vol. 2 page 70.

99. See Shiurin Shel Yorah page 67.

100. S.A. 475:1; M.B. 475:10.

101. M.B. 472:22.

102. S.A. 475:1; M.B. 475:2.

103. M.B.475:2.

104. S.A. 475:1; M.B.475:2; M.B. 475:6; M.B. 475:8. Piskei Tesuvos 475:2 describes an alternative custom for the recitation of the brochos and division of the matza. The leader of the Seder makes the brocha of Hamotzi and then divides the kezayis of matza for each person at the Seder. He includes within the kezayis some of the matza over which he made the brocha. Each individual then recites the brocha of ‘Al Achilas Matza.

105. M.B. 475:9.

106. Shiurin Shel Torah siman 11 states that fundamentally, the Chazon Ish paskened in accordance with Rav Chaim of Volozhin, who stated that a kezayis is measured as the average size of a present day olive – which at a maximum would be the volume of ⅓ of a present day egg. Based on his statement that ⅔ of a machine matza contains the volume of a present day egg, 2/9 of a machine matza would contain the volume of a kezayis. See also sefer Kezayis Hasholem, page 24; Orchos Rabbeinu vol. 2 pages 66-69.

107. See S.A. 475:1. Orchos Rabbeinu vol. 2 page 70 quotes Rav Chaim Kanievsky shli”ta as stating that the Chazon Ish did not put a whole kezayis of matza in his mouth at one time, but ate it in the normal manner within three minutes. Orchos Rabbeinu vol. 2 page 66 similarly quotes the Steipler Gaon as saying that one should eat the matza in the normal manner. See also Halichos Shlomo Pesach 9:41 and Halichos Shlomo Tefillah page 380, quoting Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach.

108. See S.A. 475:1; M.B. 475:9; Orchos Rabbeinu vol. 2 page 69. B.H. 475:1 ‘kezayis’ questions the necessity of eating two kezaysim and quotes sources to the contrary. Orchos Rabbeinu vol. 2 pages 69-70 quotes Rav Chaim Kanievsky shli”ta as stating that the Chazon Ish told him that the halacha follows the opinion that it is necessary to eat only one kezayis.

109. As stated above, fundamentally the Chazon Ish paskened that a kezayis is measured as the volume of a present day olive, which is smaller than the volume of ¼ of a machine matza.

110. Heard from Rav Heinemann shli”ta . Kol Dodi shares this opinion. See also Orchos Rabbeinu vol. 2 page 66.

111. See S.A. 475:4; M.B. 475:34; B.H. 60:4 ‘yesh omrim’; B.H. 60:4 ‘veyesh omrim’; M.B. 60:10 quoting the Chayei Odom.

112. S.H. 477:4.

113. M.B. 473:33.

114. M.B. 472:45.

115. See M.B. 443:2.

116. See S.A. 473:5; M.B. 473:34. Kol Dodi states that it is customary to specifically use romaine lettuce.

117. M.B. 473:42.

118. S.A. 473:5, M.B. 473:38.

119. Chayei Odom 130:3, Shulchan Aruch HaGraz 473:30, M.B. 473:42, Aruch HaShulchan 473:16.

120. Chazon Ish, Orach Chaim 124 comments on Pesachim 39a. See the letter written by the Steipler Gaon, which is reproduced at the end of the sefer Hilchos Chag BeChag.

121. See Orchos Rabbeinu vol. 2 page 74.

122. S.A. 473:5; M.B. 473:34. M.B. 473:39 states that the horseradish has to be raw.

123. Aruch HaShulchan 473:14. See also Piskei Teshuvah 473:18 footnote 102. Halichos Shlomo Pesach 9:48 discourages this.

124. See the letter that the Netziv wrote to his son, printed in Merumei Sodeh Pesachim 39a, in which he discourages using horseradish for marror due to the difficulty of eating it.

125. S.A. 475:1; M.B. 475:13.

126. S.A. 473:5, M.B. 473:41. See the letter written by Reb Akiva Eiger, printed in Chut HaMeshulash pages 205-206.

127. M.B. 486:1 states that with regard to marror, which is nowadays a rabbinic obligation, one can measure a kezayis as being the size of half of a present day egg. Rav Chaim Noeh, Shiurei Torah page 191, states that half a present day egg has a volume of 28.8 cm³ and 28.8 cm³ = 0.97 fl. oz.

128. Chazon Ish, Orach Chaim 100 and 39:17, states that with regard to marror one can measure a kezayis as being equivalent to the volume of ⅔ of a present day egg. Shiurin Shel Torah page 65 states that a present day egg has a volume of 50cm³. Therefore, a kezayis will have a volume of 33.3 cm³ and 33.3 cm³ = 1.13 fl. oz. Shiurin Shel Torah siman 11 states that fundamentally the Chazon Ish paskened in accordance with Rav Chaim of Volozhin, that a kezayis is measured as the size of a present day olive, which at a maximum would have the volume of ⅓ of a present day egg. He also states that a person who has difficulty eating marror can rely upon this measurement, which calculates as 17cm³ or 0.58 fl. oz. Also see the letter written by the Steipler Gaon, which is reproduced at the end of the sefer Hilchos Chag BeChag.

129. Kol Dodi.

130. Heard from Rav Heinemann shli”ta . This is in accordance with the view of Rav Chaim Noeh.

131. Sefer Kezayis Hashalem, pages 98-101, states that one large lettuce leaf or two large lettuce stalks contain the volume of a kezayis. This was calculated in accordance with the view that a kezayis is equivalent to 0.96 fl. oz.

132. M.B. 473:43; S.H. 473:60.

133. Shiurin shel Torah page 67, based on Chasam Sofer 6:16.

134. See Igros Moshe, Orach Chaim 4:41; Aruch HaShulchan 202:8; Orchos Rabbeinu vol. 2 page 70.

135. See Shiurin Shel Yorah page 67.

136. S. A. 475:1. M.B. 475:14 states that if a person does lean while eating the marror it is also fine.

137. S.A. 475:1.

138. See S.A. 475:1; Aruch HaShulchan 475:7.

139. See S.A 475:1; Rema 475:1; M.B. 475:17; M.B. 475:19.

140. See Rema 475:1; M.B. 475:18.

141. M.B. 475:16.

142. See Kol Dodi; Orchos Rabbeinu vol.2 page 75, who suggest that for korech one may use a smaller amount of marror.

143. See M.B. 486:1.

144. Heard from Rav Heinemann, shli”ta.

145. S.A. 475:1.

146. See B.H. 475:1 ‘ve’omar’.

147. S.A. 475:1.

148. Kaf HaChaim 475: 36 quoting Pri Chadash.

149. See S.A. 475:1; M.B. 475:24.

150. S.A. 477:1.

151. S.A. 477:6; M.B. 477:58.

152. M.B. 487:1 states that for afikoman, which is a mitzva derabonnon, one may follow the smaller measurement of kezayis. However, M.B. 477:1 states that for afikoman one should ideally eat two kezaysim of matza. Two kezaysim following the smaller measurement of a kezayis is equivalent to one kezayis of the larger measurement. Furthermore, S.H. 477:4 states that the afikoman is the primary matzos mitzva according to Rashi and the Rashbam; Kol Dodi states that this is a further reason to take a volume of matza consistent with the larger measurement of a kezayis. See, however, Orchos Rabbeinu vol. 2 page 67.

153. S.A. 477:1.

154. M.B. 477:4; S.H. 477:4.

155. See M.B. 472:22; M.B. 474:4; Igros Moshe O.C. 3:67.

156. See S.A. 477:1, M.B. 477:6; B.H. 477:1 ‘veyehei.

157. S.A. 478:1.

158. Igros Moshe O.C. 5:38 #8.

159. S.A. 481:1; M.B. 481:1; M.B. 478:2.

160. S.A. 481:1.

161. M.B. 481:1. See Be’er Heitev 481:1 concerning drinking coffee after eating the afikoman.

162. Avnei Nezer O.C. 361.

163. Avnei Nezer O.C. 361. See also the HaggadahMiBeis Halevi’ that the Brisker Rav was of the opinion that this may be done without any verbal statement.

164. Igros Moshe O.C. 5:38#8. See also Tosefos Maaseh Rav 52 that the Vilna Gaon skipped the Seder meal in order to eat the afikoman before chatzos.

165. See Berachos 12b-13a.



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